What does the Honey Metagenomic DNA Analysis (MDA) show?

Honey plants

Identification of plants in honey DNA analysis

  • All plants whose gene sequences are in world databases are identified.
  • The average honey sample contains traces of DNA from tens or hundreds of plant species; pollen plants, nectar plants and honeydew plants.
  • The amount and selection of plants found in the honey depends on the richness of species in the collection area, collection preferences of the bees, weather, etc.
  • In addition to the composition of honey DNA plants, the analysis compares with other honey profiles; what kind of plants there are more or less in the analyzed sample compared to other honeys. The list of comparable plants is HERE

How does honey DNA analysis work?

Honeybee pathogens and parasites

Determination of bee pathogens and parasites

  • Pathogens and parasites associated with bees are identified, including bacteria, fungi, and arthropods. Read more information HERE.
  • 20 essential pathogens and parasites were selected for honey DNA analysis. The list can be found HERE.
  • As a result of the analysis, the relative amount of the pathogen or parasite in the examined sample can be found compared to other honey.

What can be found out with honey DNA analysis?

Quality, authenticity and origin of honey

Detection of honey adulteration

Detection of honey adulteration is carried out in two stages:

Each honey has a unique composition and does not resemble entirely to any other honey. The DNA profiles of authentic honeys with naturally diverse compositions share certain common patterns. Significant deviations in honey DNA profiles are identified using a machine-learning method of data analysis. Therefore, changes and manipulations with the honey DNA profile are easily detectable.

Mee DNA Analüüs (MDA) TEST

Advantages of honey DNA metagenomic analysis

The MDA test analyzes entire DNA contained in the honey, which opens a significantly wider view of the sample than, for example, PCR or DNA barcoding tests.

The MDA test detects the presence of DNA traces of more than 10,000 different species of plants, bacteria, fungi, insects, mammals, etc. in the honey sample.

In addition to pollen plants, MDA also detects nectar and honeydew plants, and DNA traces of bee pathogens or parasites.

To analyze the DNA profile of honey, 10-20 million DNA sequences are created, which provides comprehensive information about the honey sample.

The DNA profile of each honey is unique and cannot be imitated artificially. During MDA, machine learning methods are used to detect deviations from DNA profiles of previously analyzed authentic (reference) honeys.

The power of honey DNA test in numbers

The number of DNA sequences per sample

10-20 million

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The number of species that can be identified (plants, bacteria, fungi, arthropods etc.)


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Plant species whose DNA can be detected with the test


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The most important honey bee pathogens and parasites


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The result report of honey DNA analysis is sent electronically in two files:

  • The composition of plants is presented as an interactive report.
  • A detailed PDF report shows the comparison with DNA profiles of other honeys (plants, bee pathogens and parasites), and the authenticity and origin of the honey.
Mee DNA Analüüs (MDA) TEST

Ordering MDA test

  • The MDA test can be ordered by a private person, a self-employed person, a nonprofit association, or a company.
  • 100 g of honey is required for the test.
  • The price of the test is 250 euros + VAT

Sample PDF of the report

Results QR code

Interactive sample report

Kairi Raime PhD

Head of Food Metagenomics Lab

Kaarel Krjutškov PhD

Head of Laboratory, CEO

Signe Mölder MSc

Quality Manager

Our development and marketing partners

The methodology underlying the honey DNA test has been developed with the support of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and the "Estonian Rural Development Plan 2014-2020"